Oriental Mindoro covers a total area of 4,238.38 square kilometres (1,636.45 sq mi)  occupying the eastern section of Mindoro island in MIMAROPA region.
The province is bordered by the Verde Island Passage to the north, by Marinduque, Maestre de Campo, Tablas Strait and the rest of Romblon to the east, by Semirara and the rest of Caluya Islands, Antique to the south, and by Occidental Mindoro to the west.
The western portion of the province is mountainous or rugged, while the east has hills and flood plains. Mount Halcon, standing 2,582 metres (8,471 ft) above sea level, is the 18th highest mountain in the country and is the province's and island's highest peak.
Lake Naujan, the fifth largest lake in the country with an area of approximately 8,125 hectares (20,080 acres) of open water, is located at the northeastern part of the island and the province.
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